Instrumentation and Applied Physics
MTech Programme in Instrumentation
Duration: 2 Years
Departmental Core: 30 credits
Hard Core: 18 credits
Course Credits Course Title
IN 225 3:0 Digital Signal Processing
IN 244 3:0 Optical Engineering and Laser
IN 265 3:0 Micro Systems-Materials,
Processes and Devices
E1 243 2:1 Digital Controller Design
MA 251 3:0 Numerical Analysis
IN 226 3:0 Probability and Statistical
Methods in Engg and
Soft core: 12 credits to be chosen from the following courses:
IN 201 3:0 Analytical Instrumentation
IN 221 3:0 Transducers and Measurement
IN 222 3:0 Microcontrollers and
IN 224 3:0 Microelectronic Devices,
Fabrication & Applications
IN 229 3:0 Advanced Instrumentation
IN 247 3:0 Principles of Tomographic
IN 264 2:1 Digital Signal Processors and
IN 267 3:0 Bio-Instrumentation and
IN 299 0:19 Dissertation Project
Electives: The balance of credits to make up the minimum of 64 credits required for completing the M.Tech Programme. Electives from within or outside the department to be taken with the approval of the DCC/Faculty advisor.
IN 201 (AUG) 3:0
Principles, instrumentation, design and application of UV, visible and IR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, Mossbauer and NMR spectroscopy, X-ray methods of analysis including powder diffraction, wavelength and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence; electron microscopy and microprobe; ESCA and Auger techniques, photo electron spectroscopic methods, scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy; chromatography, thermal analysis including DTA, DSC and TGA; thermal wave spectroscopic techniques such as photo-acoustic, photo-thermal deflection and photo-pyro-electric methods.
S Asokan and A G Menon
Willard, H.W., Merritt, L.L., Dean, J.A., and Settle, F.A., Instrument Methods of Analysis Sixth Edn, East West Publishers, 1992.
Strong, D.A., Holler, F.J., and Nieman, T.A., Principles of Instrumental Analysis (Fifth Edn,) Saunders, 1998.
Wiston, C., X Ray Methods, John Wiley and Sons, 1991.
IN 221 (JAN ) 3:0
Transducers and Measurement Techniques
Transducer fundamentals, classification of transducers, general transducer characteristics, displacement transducers, strain gauges, pressure and force transducers, torque transducers, vacuum sensors, radiation sensors, flow transducers, transducers for biomedical applications, tactile sensors, acoustic sensors and microsensors and actuators. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS): microfabrication and micromachining, advanced lithography techniques, diffusion & ion implantation, high aspect ratio processes and related aspects. MEMS based sensors for typical applications.
Norton, H.N., Handbook of Transducers, Prentice Hall, 1989.
Ristic, L.R. (ed.), Sensor Technology and Devices, Artech House publishers, 1994.
Current literature on Sensors and Actuators.
IN 222 (JAN) 3:0
Microcontrollers and Applications
Architecture of Microcontrollers and hardware interfacing Techniques. Introduction to Integrated development environment for application software development. A/D – D/A interfaces. Stepper and DC Motor controls. Finite state Machine Models for applications. Case studies of applications controlled via local keyboard or by using serial Interfaces. Use of I2C bus in applications.
Ayala, The 8051 Microcontroller, Third Edn, Thomson, 2007.
Mazidi, M.A., Mazidi, J.G., and Mckinlay, R.D., The 8-51 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems using Assembly and C, Second Edn, Pearson Education.
IN 223 (AUG) 3:0
Glow discharge plasmas, ion surface interactions, magnetron discharges, ion sources, DC, RF and ECR plasmas, surface modification using ion sources, ion beam mixing and ion implantation, ion beam etching for microelectronic devices, plasma diagnostics, Langmuir probe, glow discharge mass spectrometry and optical emission spectrometry, plasma surface modification.
G Mohan Rao
Chapman, B.N., Glow Discharge Processes, John Wiely and Sons, 1979.
Vossen, J.L., and Kern, W. (Eds), Thin Film Processes, Academic Press, 1979.
Cuomo, J.J., Rossnagel, S.M., and Kauffman, H.R. (Eds), Handbook of Ion beam Processing Techniques, Noyes Publications, 1989.
IN 224 (JAN) 3:0
Microelectronic Devices Fabrication and Applications
Semiconductors, growth techniques and properties, thin film phenomena, PVD and CVD techniques, ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing, lithography and ion beam etching, ceramics, glasses and plastics in microelectronics, packaging techniques, microelectronic devices.
G Mohan Rao
Sze, S.M., Physics of Semiconductor Devices, Wiley Eastern, 1993.N
IN 225 (AUG) 3:0
Digital Signal Processing
Signal theory, random processes and sequences. Introduction to sampling theorem. Z-transforms, discrete Fourier transforms, fast Fourier transforms and its applications, windowing techniques, convolution and correlation-signal detection techniques – digital filters, moving average filter, FIR and IIR filters, quantization and rounding problems in digital filters. Spectrum analysis and estimation techniques. DSP system concept and design. Introduction to DSP hardware. Algorithms and instrumentation applications.
R M Vasu and P C Mathias
Proakis, J.G., and Monolokis, D.G., Digital Signal Processing Principles, Algorithms and Applications, Prentice Hall, 1995.
Oppenheim, A.V., and Schafer, R.W., Digital Signal Processing, Prentice Hall, 1975.
IN 226 (AUG/JAN) 3:0
Probability and Statistical Methods in Engineering and Instrumentation
Introduction, elements of probability theory, counting
rules and probabilities, random variables, descriptive properties of
distribution, discrete case, continuous distributions, normal distribution,
transformation of variables,
For all computations Fortran 90, Maple, Matlab are recommended.
Meyer, P.L., Introductory Probability and Statistical Applications, Amerind Publishing Co., 1975.
Chao, L.L., Statistics – Methods and Analysis, McGraw Hill, 1974.
IN 228 (JAN) 3:0
Automatic System Control Engineering
Digital interfacing, A/D conversion by 8 bit, 12 bit and 16 bit, system calibration, compensation. Application of proportional control and PID control to systems and comparison, case studies. Stability analysis and performance modeling. Advantages of microcomputer based industrial process control systems. Remote control methods. Introduction of fuzzy logic. Linux infrared remote control.
T K Mondal
Hall, D.V., Microprocessors and interfacing, McGraw Hill, 1986.
John Van De Vegte, Feedback control system, Prentice Hall Intl, Inc.
Terano, T., Asai, K., Sugeno, M. (Eds), (Translated by
Charles Aschmann), Applied Fuzzy Systems, Professional,
IN 229 (AUG) 3:0
Advanced Instrumentation Electronics
Instrumentation building blocks: operational amplifiers, RC timers, waveform generators, programmable analog circuits, analog filter design, switched capacitor circuits, data conversion (ADC/DAC) circuits, CAD for analog circuits. Digital circuits: interfacing, PC fundamentals, role of PC in instrumentation, parallel port, serial RS232, CAN, I2C, SPI protocols. Logic family characteristics: TTL, I2L, CMOS, ECL, low voltage logic. Basic introduction to microcontrollers and programmable logic. RF circuits: basic transmission line theory, impedance matching, Smith chart, stability of RF amplifiers, VCOs, mixers, PLLS. measurement and characterization of noise.
Atanu K Mohanty
Horowitz, P., and Hill, W., Art of Electronics, Second
Ryder, J.D., Networks, Lines and Fields, Second Edn, Prentice Hall of India, 1955.
Millman, J., and Halkias, C.C., Integrated Electronics, McGraw Hill,
IN 232 (AUG) 2:1
Thin Film Deposition and Characterization
Deposition techniques: electroplating, CVD, Solgel, resistive, electron beam, flash and laser evaporation, DC and RF diode, triode and magnetron sputtering. Ion plating, ion beam deposition, plasma CVD and MBE. Deposition systems and accessories – design and fabrication details of electron beam guns, ion sources. Film thickness measurement and monitoring techniques. Film characterisation techniques: X-rays and electron beam techniques for structure and composition, instrumentation for measuring electrical, optical and electromechanical properties of films.
K Rajanna and K Narasimha Rao
Chopra, K.L., Thin Film Phenomena, Rober G. Krieger Publishing, NY, 1979.
Maissel, L., and Glong, R., Hand
Book of Thin Film Technology, McGraw Hill,
Vassen, J.L., and Kem, W., Thin Film Process, Academic Press, NY, 1978.
IN 233 (JAN) 3:0
Thin Film Devices and Applications
Review of deposition techniques and measurement of thin film properties. Design, fabrication and testing of thin film devices – optical coatings, transparent conducting and superconducting coatings, coatings for solar energy, resistive sensors, temperature and radiation detectors, metallurgical coatings for wear friction and corrosion.
K Narasimha Rao
Macleod, H.A, Thin Film Optical Filters, IOP, 2001.
Chopra, K.L., and Indrijeet Kaur, Thin Film Device Applications, Plenum Press, NY, 1983.
Smith, D.L., Thin Film Deposition: Principles and Practice, Academic Press, NY, 1995.
IN 234 (AUG) 3:0
High Vacuum Technology and Applications
Kinetic theory of gases in closed systems, production and measurement of high vacuum, materials for vacuum environment, vacuum system design and fabrication, leak detection. Applications of high vacuum in thin film technology, metallurgy and space technology. Concepts of ultra high vacuum techniques.
K Narasimha Rao and G Mohan Rao
Roth, A., Vacuum technology, Elsevier Science, 1996.
Lafferty, J.M., Foundations of Vacuum Science and Technology, John Wiley and Sons, 1998.
IN 244 (AUG) 3:0
Optical Engineering and Laser Instrumentation
Optical fields and waves – their interaction with bulk and structured matter. Engineering principles for optical materials, components and systems. Lasers and their related phenomenon/technologies, principles and devices based on electro-optics, acousto-optics, magneto–optics, guided wave-optics and harmonic generation, methods of Q-switching, mode-locking and ultra short pulse generation. Laser based methods and systems for measurement and sensing, interferometry, holography, speckle, fiber and Fourier optics.
L Kameswara Rao
Siegman, A.E., Lasers,
University Science Books,
Verdeyen, J.T., Laser Electronics, Prentice Hall, 1989.
Silfvast, W.T., Laser Fundamentals,
Charaschan, S.S., Lasers in Industry, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1972.
IN 247 (JAN) 3:0
Principles of Tomographic Imaging
Radon transform and its properties, inversion methods using FBP, ART and its variations for both parallel and fan beam illumination. Optical tomography. Refraction correction strategies. Diffraction correction in optical tomography, data gathering for optical tomography, wavefront estimation techniques, phase unwrapping. Experimental aspects and applications.
R M Vasu
Deans, S.R., The Radon Transform and some of its Applications, John Wiley, 1993.
Herrman, G.T., Image Reconstructions from Projection: The Fundamentals of Computerized Tomography, Academic Press, 1980.
Kak A.C., and Slaney, M., Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging, IEEE Press, 1988.
IN 251 (JAN) 3:0
Process Instrumentation and Control
Measurement of process and system variables, thermal, mechanical and optical sensors, analog and digital signal conditioning, principles of automatic control, discrete state process control, control hardware, actuators, relays, switches and valves, analog and digital controllers, control loop characteristics and analysis, process tuning, PLCs in process control, distributed control systems, smart sensors, application of MEMS in process industry.
Johnson, C., Process Control Instrumentation Technology, Prentice Hall of India, 1996.
Doeblin, E.O., Measurement Systems – Application and Design, McGraw Hall, 1975.
Ogata, K., Modern Control Engineering, Prentice Hall of India, 1994.
IN 252 (AUG) 3:0
Instrumentation for Energy Conservation and Management
Principles and techniques of energy audit and management, energy conservation methods, evaluation and measurement techniques, heat flux meters, BTU meters suitable for heat exchangers and gaseous fuels calorimeters, instrumentation for renewable energy systems (solar thermal, photovoltaic and wind energy). Energy management devices, electromechanical devices, micro controller based systems.
Reay, D.A., Industrial Energy Conservation, Pergamon Press, 1977.
Hodge, B.K., Analysis and Design of Energy Systems, Prentice Hall, 1988.
Liptak, B.G. (ed.), Instrument Engineers Handbook, Chinton Book Company, 1982.
IN 264 (AUG) 2:1
Digital Signal Processors and Applications
Architecture of digital signal processors, fixed point and floating point processors. Memory, serial and parallel interfacing. Programming, codes. Implementation of signal and image processing algorithms, image compression algorithms, embedded systems using DSPs.
P C Mathias and K Rajan
Rao, K.R., and Hwang, J.J., Techniques and Standards for Image, Video and Audio Coding, PHI.
Nasser Kehtarnavaz, Mansour Keramat, Newnes, DSP System Design: Using the TMS320C6000, 2004.
DSP Manuals and User Guides from Analog Devices and
IN 265 (JAN) 2:1
Microsystems-Materials, Processes and Devices
MEMS – Introduction and applications, substrates – Silicon, Ga As, Quartz, ceramics and polymers. Materials – smart materials and their properties, thin films for micro and nanotechnologies. Thin film processes – physical and chemical methods. Thin film characterization: structure, microstructure, composition and other properties. Process parameter dependence on thin film properties and structure. Lithography – fundamentals, photoresists, processes, optical, electron beam, focussed ion beam, X ray, Liga and micro stereolithography, Etching – bulk and surface micromaching. Wet & dry etching, deep reactive, ion etching. Packaging: bonding, microassembly, packaging and reliability studies, MEMS Devices for Automotive, Aerospace, Biomedical and processing technologies.
Laboratory sessions on thin film deposition, characterization and MEMS fabrication which includes wet and dry etching, lithography, diffusion, oxidation and mask fabrication.
Nadim Maluf, An introduction to Microelectromechanical Systems Engineering.
Marc Madou, Fundamentals of Microfabrication, CRC Press, 1997.
Ristic, L. (ed.), Sensor Technology and Devices, Artech House Publications, 1994.
Wise, K.D. (Guest Editor), Integrated Sensors, Microactuators and Microsystems (MEMS).
Special issue of Proceedings of IEEE. Vol. 86, No.8, August 1998.
IN 266 (AUG/JAN) 3:0
Geometry for Instrumentation and Engineering Applications
Fundamentals of linear algebra, linear structure, rn, cn, parametric representation, change of variables, linear form, bilinear form, Gauss, Green, Stokes theorem, differential geometry, differential forms. Some application in FEM, and some case studies.
For all computations Fortran 90, Matlab and Maple are recommended.
Anton, H., and Rorres, C., Elementary Linear Algebra, Application version, John Wiley and Sons, 1994.
Munkres, J.R., Analysis on manifolds, Addison Wesley, 1991.
Chern, S.S., Chen, W.H., Lam, K.S., Lectures on differential geometry, World Scientific, 2000.
IN 267 (AUG) 3:0
Bio-Instrumentation and Bioimaging
Light Sources, Monochromators, Optical Filters, Photomultiplier Tubes, Polarizers, Beer-Lambart Law, Paraxial Ray Optics and System Designing, Electromagnetic Theory, Fluorescence Microscopy Systems, Jablonski Diagram, Emission Spectra, Fluorescence Lifetime and Quantum Yields, Time-Domain Lifetime Measurements, Electric Field Effects, Point Spread Function, Single- and Multi- Photon Fluorescence Microscopy, Advanced Super Resolution Microscopy, Aperture Engineering Techniques for High Resolution Microscopy, Molecular Physics, Photobleaching Effects, 3D Images Reconstruction, Markov Random Field, Maximum Likelihood Algorithm, Bayes Theorem.
Partha P Mondal
Prerequsite: Knowledge of C and Matlab Programing
Skoog, D.A., Holler, F.J., and Crouch, S.R., Instrumental Analysis, Cengage Learning, 2007.
Lakowicz, J.R., Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Third Edn, Springer, 2006.
Alberto Diaspro, Nanoscopy and Multidimensional Optical Fluorescence Microscopy, CRC, First Edn, 2010.
IN 299 0:19
The dissertation project aims at providing the candidates with an opportunity to design and build complete systems or sub-systems in an area where they would like to acquire specialised skills. A report is to be submitted at the culmination of the project. The project will be evaluated on the basis of (i) physical inspection of the project (ii) project report and (iii) oral examination.